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            中国国粹之京剧 Peking Opera of Chinese Quintessence?? ?? ???

            仓丽莉 Mandarin Group 11月30日
            京剧是流传北京、河北、天津及全国大部分地区的一种戏曲剧种。在国外,它往往代表着中国的戏曲艺术,所以又被称为“国剧”。
            Beijing Opera is a kind of opera that spreads widelyin Beijing, Hebei, Tianjin and most parts of the country. In foreign countries,it often represents the Chinese opera art, so it is also called "Chineseopera".
            ??? ???? ???,???,?? ? ???? ??? ?? ? ???? ?????.??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?? " ?? " ??? ???.







            01



            京剧的起源
            The origin of Peking Opera
            ?? ???? ??
            京剧起源于四个地方的剧种:一是原来流行于安徽省一带的徽剧;二是流行于湖北的汉剧;三是流行于江苏一带的昆曲;四是流行于陕西的秦剧,又叫梆子。清乾隆末期四大徽班进北京后,于嘉庆、道光年间同来自湖北的汉调艺人合作,互相影响,逐渐接受了昆曲、秦腔的部分剧目、曲调和表演方法,并吸收了一些民间曲调、北京土语,逐渐融合发展。京剧音乐属于板腔体,用胡琴(京胡)、和锣鼓、京二胡、月琴等伴奏。主要唱腔有二黄、西皮两个系统,声腔为主的“三庆”,所以京剧也称“皮黄”。
            It originated from four kinds of operas: first, Huijuopera in Anhui Province; second, Han opera popular in Hubei; third, Kunqu Operapopular in Jiangsu; Fourth, popular in Shaanxi Qin opera, also known as Bangzi.After the four Emblem classes entered Beijing in the late Qianlong period ofthe Qing Dynasty, Yu Jiaqing and Daoguang cooperated with the Han tone artistsfrom Hubei, influenced each other, and gradually accepted part of Kunqu Opera,Qin Opera's repertoire, tunes and performing methods, and absorbed some folktunes. The vernacular language in Beijing has gradually merged and developed.Beijing Opera music belongs to the board, with Hu Qin (Jing Hu), and drums,Beijing erhu, Yueqin and other accompaniment. The main singing has two yellow,two systems Xipi, vocal-based "Sanqing", so Beijing Opera is alsoknown as "Pei Huang".
            ?? ????4?? ??? ????? ????:??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????? ? ??? ???? ???? ? ????? ? ??? ???? ???? ? ? ????? ? ??? ????? ???? ? ????? ??.??????4? ??? ???? ?? ? ?,??? ?? ???? ???? ? ??? ????? ???? ?? ?????,????? ??? ?? ???,?? ? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????.??? ???,?? ?? ??,?? ??? ??? Huqin(Jinghu ),? ? ??, Jing Erhu,Yueqin??? ?????? ??? ????.?? ???? ? ?? ????xipi ???? ? ?? ????? ???" Sanqing"???Peking Opera? "??????"???????.


            02



            京剧的唱腔
            The aria of Beijing Opera
            ?? ???
            京剧常用唱腔还有南梆子、四平调、高拔子和吹腔。
            京剧的传统剧目约在一千个,常演的约有三四百个,其中除来自徽戏、汉戏、昆曲与秦腔者外,也有相当数量是京剧艺人和民间作家陆续编写出来的。京剧较擅长于表现历史题材的政治、军事斗争,故事大多取自历史演义和小说话本。既有整本的大戏,也有大量的折子戏,此外还有一些连台本戏。
            The traditional repertoire of Peking Opera is about1,000, and there are about three or four hundred operas, except those from Hui,Han, Kunqu and Qin Opera. There are also a considerable number of Peking Operaartists and folk writers one after another to write out. Beijing Opera is goodat political and military struggles with historical themes, and most of thestories are taken from historical and novel texts. There are not only the wholeplay, but also a large number of zhuanzi operas, in addition to some Liantaiopera.
            ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?(Nanzizi ),???( Siping),???(Gaozi)? ?? ????.?? ???,? ???,?? ???,???? ?? ?? ? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ????.?? ???( PekingOpera)? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ? ???? ? ??.???? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???.? ???? ?? ??? ???,?? ?? ?? ???? ????.



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